GINA

GINA products are available to the public via web portals and public-facing servers. Contact us for additional information.

Single Band Products

VIIRS i04 Band - 3.74 μm (colorized)

The VIIRS 3.74 μm “Shortwave IR” channel is highly. sensitive to the short wavelength energy emissions of fires; these emissions can be detected day and night, making this channel ideal for monitoring wildland fires. It is the basis for most fire-related products. While solar radiation reflected by clouds or the Earth’s surface does contribute to the total daytime energy measured in the channel, the signal from fires is usually much stronger. A special colormap is used to accentuate higher temperatures from potential fires.

VIIRS i05 Band - 11.5 μm

The VIIRS 11.5 μm “Longwave IR” channel is used for continuous day/night cloud feature identification and classification, convective severe weather signatures, and hurricane intensity. It is less sensitive than other infrared window bands to water vapor absorption, and therefore improves atmospheric moisture corrections, aids in cloud and other atmospheric feature identification/classification, estimation of cloud-top brightness temperature and cloud particle size, and surface property characterization in derived products.

VIIRS DayNight Band

The VIIRS DayNight Band (DNB) is is a highly sensitive visible channel available on both SNPP and NOAA-20 that can show clouds at night when there is sufficient secondary light sources such as moonlight. Satellites that are equipped with the VIIRS DNB sensor include NOAA-20 and SNPP.

VIIRS Visible channels

GINA provides VIIRS base channel products for 8 channels in the visible and near IR range including red, green and blue visible bands and the snow/ice band. Output is in reflectance percentages and wavelengths include 0.49, 0.56, 0.64, 0.87, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, and 2.3 micron. Some bands (0.64um, 0.87um, and 1.6um) have resolutions of 350 m with the rest at 750 m. Satellites that are equipped with the VIIRS sensor include NOAA-20 and SNPP.

VIIRS Infrared channels

GINA provides VIIRS base channel products for 6 channels in the infrared range. Output is in Brightness Temperatures and wavelengths include 3.7, 4.0, 8.6, 10.8, 11.4, 12.0 micron. Some bands (3.7um and 11.4um) have resolutions of 350 m with the rest at 750m. Satellites that are equipped with the VIIRS sensor include NOAA-20 and SNPP.

MODIS Visible channels

GINA provides MODIS base channel products for 8 channels in the visible and near IR range including red, green and blue visible bands and the snow/ice band. Output is in reflectance percentages and wavelengths include 0.47, 0.56, 0.65, 0.86, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, and 2.1 micron. Satellites that are equipped with the MODIS sensor include Aqua and Terra.

MODIS AQUA and TERRA Infrared 11um (band 21)

MODIS band 31 is a longwave infrared channel with a wavelength of 11.0 μm. Similar to the VIIRS 11.5 μm this channel is used for continuous day/night cloud feature identification and classification, convective severe weather signatures, and hurricane intensity. It is less sensitive than other infrared window bands to water vapor absorption, and therefore improves atmospheric moisture corrections, aids in cloud and other atmospheric feature identification/classification, estimation of cloud-top brightness temperature and cloud particle size, and surface property characterization in derived productsScreen reader support enabled. The MODIS sensor in installed on Aqua and Terra satellites.

MODIS Infrared channels

GINA provides MODIS base channel products for 8 channels in the infrared range including 2 water vapor channels. Output is in Brightness Temperatures and wavelengths include 3.7, 4.0, 6.7, 7.3, 8.6, 9.7, 11.0, 12.0 micron. Satellites that are equipped with the MODIS sensor include Aqua and Terra.

AVHRR Visible channels

GINA provides AVHRR base channel products for 3 channels in the visible and near IR range including the red visible and the snow/ice bands. Output is in reflectance percentages and wavelengths include 0.63, 0.86, and 1.6 micron. Satellites that are equipped with the AVHRR sensor include NOAA-15, NOAA-18, NOAA-19, Metop-B, and Metop-C.

AVHRR Band 5, 12.0 um

The 12um IR measures emitted energy from the surface or clouds, but it is often called the “Dirty Window” band because it is sensitive to moisture and particles aloft. When subtracted from the 11 um IR “clean window” it can identify areas of dust and volcanic ash.

AVHRR Band 4, 10.8 um

The 11um longwave IR band is a window channel because it is less sensitive to water vapor. This bands is used for cloud and other atmospheric feature identification/classification as well as estimation of cloud-top brightness temperatures.

AVHRR Infrared channels

GINA provides AVHRR base channel products for 3 channels in the infrared range. Output is in Brightness Temperatures and wavelengths include 3.7, 10.8, 12.0 micron. Satellites that are equipped with the AVHRR sensor include NOAA-15, NOAA-18, NOAA-19, Metop-B, and Metop-C.

RGB and Multispectral Products

True Color RGB

This RGB is made from the red (0.65um), green (0.56um) and blue (0.47um) visible VIIRS channels. It produces a product that is close to what the human eye would see from space.

Snowmelt RGB

The 750-m SNPP and NOAA-20 VIIRS Snowmelt RGB is used to monitor snow on the ground and differentiate the microphysical characteristics of clouds (liquid versus ice). Specifically, this RGB utilizes the VIIRS 1.24-μm band that is highly sensitive to snow properties, including grain size and relative wetness. This RGB is useful for identifying areas of freezing rain and sleet accumulation, as well as for hydrological applications, such as snowmelt-enhanced flood events.

Night Time Microphysics

This RGB is designed to improve the distinction between clouds and fog or low stratus. The different between 10.8um and 3.7um is often used for a quick analysis of fog/stratus but this RGB adds another channel difference (10.8um -12um) as a proxy to cloud thickness and a repeat of the 10.8um to enhance areas of warm (low) clouds where fog is more likely.r green, and 0.64um for blue. It is used for discriminating ice/snow from clouds and for identifying burn scars from wildland fires.

DayLandCloud RGB

This RGB has had many names in the past, but the most recent and recommended name is DayLandCloud RGB. It is used for discriminating ice/snow which from clouds. In this RGB ice and snow on the ground and ice crystals aloft in cirrus clouds appear cyan-blue while water clouds appear white. This RGB can also be used to identify burn scars from wildland fires which appear brown from whereas vegetation is green.
The VIIRS instrument on both NOAA-20 and SNPP use the same band combination: 1.6um for red, 0.87um for green, and 0.64um for blue. The MODIS instrument on TERRA-1 use same band combination of 1.6um for red, 0.87um for green, and 0.64um for blue. AVHRR from NOAA-19 has the correct bands for this RGB combination, 1.6um for red, 0.87um for green, and 0.64um for blue.

7_2_1

This RGB is similar to the DayLandCloud RGB but is uses MODIS band 7 at 2.1 um instead of band 6 at 1.6 um. It is used for discriminating ice/snow which from clouds but with the 2.1 um band is is a little more sensitive to fires and a little less sensitive to snow and ice. In this RGB ice and snow on the ground and ice crystals aloft in cirrus clouds appear cyan-blue while water clouds appear white. This RGB can also be used to identify burn scars from wildland fires which appear brown whereas vegetation is green.

TrueColor RGB

This RGB is made from the red (0.64um), green (0.56um) and blue (0.49um) visible VIIRS channels. It produces a product that is close to what the human eye would see from space.

Snow/Cloud Discriminator

The Snow/Cloud Discriminator combines information from 10 different bands on VIIRS (6 during the day and 4 at night) to help distinguish clouds from snow and ice. Unlike other RGBs for snow and cloud discrimination, which only work during the day, the Snow/ Cloud Discriminator utilizes the Day/Night Band (DNB) so it works around the clock. This is particularly useful during those long winter nights. These products were developed by Steve Miller and Curtis Seaman at CIRA.

Fire Temperature RGB

This RGB is created by assigning the 3.74um channel to red, 2.25um channel to green, and the 1.61um channel to blue. It is used to assess fire intensity and size, with fires ranging from red (lowest) to yellow to white (hottest or biggest). These products were developed by Steve Miller and Curtis Seaman at CIRA.

DayLandCloudFire RGB

This RGB is created by assigning the 3.74um channel to red, 0.87um channel to green, and the 0.64um channel to blue. It is used to assess fire parameters and burn scars. These products were developed by Steve Miller and Curtis Seaman at CIRA.

The longer wavelengths in the microwave portion of the energy spectrum are not affected by very small cloud droplets and as a result microwave products are not obscured by clouds. Microwave energy is more sensitive to large precipitation droplets and therefore is ideal for estimating rain rates.

MIRS TPW

The TPW microwave product identifies how much moisture is contained vertically in a column of atmosphere. MIRS TPW products are derived from microwave seonsors on multiple polar satellites. It is used to locate very moist or very dry air masses which might otherwise be obscured by higher clouds in the infrared or visible wavelengths.

MIRS Rain Rate

MIRS Rain Rates are valid day or night, in all weather conditions and over non-frozen surface types. MIRS rain rates are from derived microwave sensors on multiple polar satellites. They provide a more complete picture of precipitation patterns, especially where radar coverage is unavailable, and they can locate areas of heavy rain that might otherwise be obscured by high clouds.

AMSR2 Rain Rate

AMSR2 Rain Rates are valid day or night, in all weather conditions and over non-frozen surface types. They are higher resolution than MiRS providing a more complete picture of precipitation patterns, especially where radar coverage is unavailable, and they can locate areas of heavy rain that might otherwise be obscured by high clouds.

MIRS CLW

CLW estimates the amount of non-precipitating liquid water that is contained in a vertical column of atmosphere. In combination with the freezing level it can be used to locate high concentrations of super-cooled water for assessing the risk of freezing drizzle or aircraft icing.

MIRS Sea Ice Concentration

Sea Ice Concentration estimates the percentage of Sea Ice Concentration estimates the percentage of sea ice within each pixel so concentration amounts can vary somewhat with the different microwave sensor resolutions that are used for MiRS. It is especially effective to monitor sea ice changes in areas obscured by clouds in the infrared or visible wavelengths.

AMSR2 Sea Ice Concentration

Sea Ice Concentration estimates the percentage of Sea Ice Concentration estimates the percentage of sea ice within each pixel. The AMSR2 sensor is much higher resolution than the sensors used for MiRS, so ice concentration variations can be more detailed. It is especially effective to monitor sea ice changes in areas obscured by clouds in the infrared or visible wavelengths.

AMSR2 Multi-Year Sea Ice Concentration

Multi Year Sea Ice Concentration estimates the percentage of Multi Year Sea Ice Concentration within each pixel. The AMSR2 sensor is much higher resolution than the sensors used for MiRS, so ice concentration variations can be more detailed. It is especially effective to monitor sea ice changes in areas obscured by clouds in the infrared or visible wavelengths.

MIRS Snowfall Rate (SFR)

The MIRS snowfall rate product is a liquid equivalent, instantaneous snowfall rate derived from multiple passive microwave instruments on several satellites. Since the passive microwave signal can penetrate clouds, the observations provide a signature of the snow within the clouds. The SFR can identify the extent of a snow storm and the location of the most intense snowfall; features not readily apparent from traditional visible or IR imagery. The SFR is most valuable in filling observational gaps in radar poor regions such as mountains and remote locations.

MIRS SWE

The MiRS Snow Water Equivalent product is and estimate of the water content in the snowpack. It is valid day or night regardless of cloud cover, however it can have variable results with changes to the snowpack that affect emissivity, such as melting or ponding on the surface. The AMSR2 sensor is much higher in resolution than the sensors used for MiRS however it still may have difficulty resolving details in terrain such as forests and steep mountains.

AMSR2 SWE

The MiRS Snow Water Equivalent product is and estimate of the water content in the snowpack. It is valid day or night regardless of cloud cover, however it can have variable results with changes to the snowpack that affect emissivity, such as melting or ponding on the surface. The AMSR2 sensor is much higher in resolution than the sensors used for MiRS however it still may have difficulty resolving details in terrain such as forests and steep mountains.

AMSR2 Snow Depth

The AMSR2 Snow Depth product is an estimate of the amount of snow on the ground. It is valid day or night regardless of cloud cover, however like SWE it can have variable results with changes in the snowpack that affect emissivity, such as melting or ponding on the surface. The AMSR2 sensor is higher resolution than the sensors used for MiRS however it still may have difficulty resolving details in terrain such as forests and steep mountains.

AMSR2 Ocean Wind Speed

The AMSR2 Ocean Wind Speed product is an estibmate of surface wind speed over water based on emissivity differences cause by variations in sea surface roughness. Like other microwave products it is not obscurred by clouds.

AMSR2 SST

The AMSR2 Sea Surface Temperature (SST) product is an estimate of sea wather surface temperature. Like other microwave products it is not obscurred by clouds.

Single Band IR Imagery Composites

Mosaics overlay common products from several polar satellites into a regional view with the latest image on top of older images. This provides a regional perspective of synoptic conditions.

MIRS Microwave Composites

Mosaics overlay common products from several polar satellites into a regional view with the latest image on top of older images. This provides a regional perspective of synoptic conditions.

ACSPO SST Composites

The Advanced Clear Sky Processor for Oceans (ACSPO) is an algorithm used to generate SST products under clear skies from VIIRS, MODIS, and AVHRR imagery data.

CSPP NUCAP Soundings

Vertical profiles of temperature and moisture are produced by the NOAA-Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System. Over the Continental United States, the timely sounding observations are taken just as afternoon convection is starting. Data from Infrared and Microwave sounders are used (CrIS and ATMS on NPP and NOAA-20 ; IASI and AMSU/MHS on Metop-B and Metop-C). The soundings are driven by satellite observations and are independent of any model. Hundreds of satellite soundings are available day and night.

Gridded data (SPoRT & GINA)

NUCAPS Soundings are available in AWIPS and Gridded NUCAPS is the capability to view plan-view and cross-section displays. Temperature and moisture fields, as well as derived fields (e.g., lapse rate, theta-e, and precipitablewater). Gridded NUCAPS has been demonstrated to diagnose (1) regions of Cold Air Aloft for aviation and (2) the characteristics of the pre-convective environment. Because ozone data is available ozone related fields and tropopause height are available to diagnose tropopause folding.

Cloud Cover at Flight Levels

This product classifies cloud layers with colors that represent general height terms: low, mid, high, or some combination of the those levels.

Cloud Top Temperature

The cloud-top temperature is one of the directly retrieved products from the AWG Cloud Height Algorithm (ACHA).

Cloud Top Heights

The CLAVR-x cloud-top height product is derived from the cloud-top temperature and an atmospheric temperature profile provided by a background NWP model.

Cloud Phase

The cloud phase product categorizes the cloud scene into a set of cloud phase classifications. The cloud phase classifications from CLAVR-x are: Clear, Water, Supercooled, Mixed, and Ice.

Cloud Type

The cloud type product categorizes the cloud scene into a set of cloud types classifications. The integer cloud type classifications from CLAVR-x are: Clear, Probably Clear, Fog, Water, Supercooled, Mixed, Cirrus, Thin Cirrus, Overlap, Overshoot, and Dust.

Rain Rate

The CLAVR-x rain rate product is and estimate based on cloud top temperatures.

River Flood Areal Extent

The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Flood Areal Extent, is a satellite-based flood extent product, derived from daytime Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi-NPP) and NOAA-20 satellite imagery. In this product, flood extent is represented in floodwater fractions, where ‘water fraction’ indicates percentage of open water extent in a VIIRS 375-m pixel. VIIRS Flood Areal Extent provides the spatial distribution of floodwater, that is valuable for National Weather Service (NWS) and River Forecast Center (RFC) forecasters with respect to flood forecasting applications.

River Ice Areal Extent

The River Ice Areal Extent provides a graphic display of ice, snow, and water over land.

River Ice Concentration

This product displays a color representation of the percent of ice in each pixel where water is usually present such as rivers and lakes.

VIIRS Ice Thickness

This Sea Ice Thickness product is based on VIIRS imagery so estimates can only be done in cloud-free areas. Sea Ice Thickness for each pixel is expressed in meters.

VIIRS Sea Ice Concentration

This Sea Ice Concentration product is based on VIIRS imagery so estimates can only be done in cloud-free areas. Concentrations are expressed as estimates the percentage of sea ice within each pixel.

VIIRS Ice Surface Temperature

Displays the temperature of the ice surface in degrees Celsius but only where skies are clear since with VIIRS the surface is obscured by clouds.

Fire Heat points (VIIRS Active Fires - VAF)

Software that identifies points that are likely active fires. Points area derived from an algorithm that uses the VIIRS I04 (3.75 um) to find high brightness temperatures, and then compares those locations wth the VIIRS I05 (11.5 um) and reflectance bands I01 (0.64 um), i02 (0.87 um) to isolate only on hot pixels that are caused by an active fire.

ACSPO SST

The Advanced Clear Sky Processor for Oceans (ACSPO) is an algorithm used to generate SST products under clear skies from VIIRS, MODIS, and AVHRR imagery data.

VIIRS Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD)

The 750-m SNPP and NOAA-20 VIIRS Snowmelt RGB is used to monitor snow on the ground and differentiate the microphysical characteristics of clouds (liquid versus ice). Specifically, this RGB utilizes the VIIRS 1.24-μm band that is highly sensitive to snow properties, including grain size and relative wetness. This RGB is useful for identifying areas of freezing rain and sleet accumulation, as well as for hydrological applications, such as snowmelt-enhanced flood events.